Saturday, 31 August 2019
AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s Versus ChillingworthÃ¢â¬â¢s Revenge What does revenge mean? The definition is Ã¢â¬Å"to exact punishment or expiation for a wrong on behalf of, especially in a resentful or vindictive spiritÃ¢â¬ (dictionary. com). What does that mean? It means to give punishment to someone who deserves it for some specific reason, especially if the reason was personal or offends to the person giving the revenge. In both The Crucible and The Scarlet Letter there was revenge. However, they both had different types of revenge and how it was used. There was a lot of revenge in The Crucible.The first person that was using revenge in The Crucible is Thomas Putnam. From the beginning of the play, Thomas Putnam had grudges against Francis Nurse for preventing his brother-in-law from being elected to run for office as minister. Ã¢â¬Å"Thomas Putnam's man for the Salem ministry was Bayley. The Nurse clan had been in the faction that prevented Bayley's taking officeÃ¢â¬ (Act 1). He also dislikes George Jacobs because they have had land disputes in the past. Thomas Putnam decides to have his daughter Ruth charge witchcraft against the man.He does this because if George Jacobs is executed, then Thomas Putnam can buy all of George Jacobs' land. Giles Corey knows this and in the book he says, Ã¢â¬Å"If Jacobs hangs for a witch he forfeit up his property Ã¢â¬â that's law! And there is none but Putnam with the coin to buy so great a piece. This man is killing his neighbors for their landÃ¢â¬ (Act 3)! Another person that Thomas Putnam wants to have revenge against is the Ã¢â¬Å"witchÃ¢â¬ that the people of Salem have been trying to find since the very beginning. He and his wife are the reason that the whole witchcraft hysteria went out of control.Thomas Putnam and his wife were very upset about how they lost seven newborns and now their only living child, Ruth, is sick. In the book Mrs. Putnam says: Ã¢â¬Å"Reverend Parris, I have laid seven babies unbaptized in the earth. Believe me, sir, you never saw more hearty babies born. And yet, each would wither in my arms the very night of their birth. I have spoke nothin', but my heart has clamored intimations. And now, this year, my Ruth, my only Ã¢â¬â I see her turning strange. A secret child she has become this year, and shrivels like a sucking mouth were pullinÃ¢â¬â¢ on her life too. Ã¢â¬ (Act 1) They are desperate and try to onvince Reverend Parris to tell everyone what he saw with the girls dancing in the woods. One of the girls was naked, Tituba was doing some Barbuda spell, and something with a frog in it was boiling in a pot. The last thing that Thomas Putnam does for revenge is when Giles Corey accuses Thomas Putnam of using the witch trials as a way to get land much cheaper than it is worth by accusing people and having them executed and then buying their land. Giles Corey is pressed to death, for not telling the court who told him this information and Putnam gets his revenge. He refuses to confess because he knows he will lose his land.He knew if he just dies without being guilty by the court then his sons will get the land but if he confesses he loses the land so he has them put more weight on him and he dies. His last words in the play were Ã¢â¬Å"More weight. Ã¢â¬ Thomas Putnam's wife, Mrs. Putnam, has Rebecca Nurse arrested for the supernatural murder of her seven babies because Rebecca was her midwife. Mrs. Putnam is very jealous of the other wives because she had seven stillbirths. The main person that uses revenge in the play is Abigail Williams. She is a cruel, selfish girl that will do anything to get with John Proctor.So, naturally, she hates his wife, Elizabeth Proctor, more than anything in the world. Here's a quote from the book showing how Abigail dislikes Elizabeth, Ã¢â¬Å"She is blackening my name in the village! She is telling lies about me! She is a cold, sniveling woman, and you bend to herÃ¢â¬ (Act 1). The first reason she hates Elizabeth Proctor is because she fired Abigail from being her servant because Elizabeth found out that her husband, John Proctor, was having an affair with her. John Proctor ends up confessing in court about the affair and he says: Ã¢â¬Å"A man may think God sleeps, but God sees everything, I know it now.I beg you, sir, I beg youÃ¢â¬âsee her what she is . . . She thinks to dance with me on my wife's grave! And well she might, for I thought of her softly. God help me, I lusted, and there is a promise in such sweat. But it is a whore's vengeance. Ã¢â¬ (Act 3) She goes to the extent to have Tituba do some Barbuda ritual thing with a chicken and boiling something. She even drinks the blood of the chicken. In the book when accused of drinking blood Abigail betrays Tituba and blames her and says that she made her drink the blood, Ã¢â¬Å"She makes me drink bloodÃ¢â¬ (Act 1)!When Abigail, Tituba, and the girls get caught dancing (and Abigail is also naked) and performing this Ã¢â ¬Å"witchcraftÃ¢â¬ , Abigail threatens to murder anyone who says they did anything other than dance. An example of a quote of Abigail only caring about herself not getting in trouble is, Ã¢â¬Å"I want to open myself! . . . I want the light of God, I want the sweet love of Jesus! I danced for the Devil; I saw him, I wrote in his book; I go back to Jesus; I kiss His hand. I saw Sarah Good with the Devil! I saw Goody Osburn with the Devil! I saw Bridget Bishop with the DevilÃ¢â¬ (Act 1)! During the play, she desperately wants John Proctor.She begs and begs for John to remember their Ã¢â¬Å"connectionÃ¢â¬ and all the things she taught her. In the play Abigail says, Ã¢â¬Å"I look for John Proctor that took me from my sleep and put knowledge in my heart! I never knew what pretense Salem was, I never knew the lying lessons I was taught by all these Christian women and their covenanted men! And now you bid me tear the light out of my eyes? I will not, I cannot! You loved me, John Pro ctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yetÃ¢â¬ (Act 1)! The next thing that Abigail does is the doll she gives to Elizabeth. Abigail forces Mary Warren to sew Elizabeth a doll and put a needle in the stomach of it.Then when Mary gives it to Elizabeth, Abigail shoves a needle in her stomach in the same spot and goes to the authorities and tells them that Elizabeth sent her spirit out to stab her with the needle. In the play Cheever says this about what happened: Ã¢â¬Å"The girl, the Williams girl, Abigail Williams, Sir. She sat to dinner in Reverend Parris's house tonight, and without word nor warnin' she falls to the floor. Lake a struck beast, he says, and screamed a scream that a bull would weep to hear. And he goes to save her, and, stuck two inches in the flesh of her belly, he draw a needle out.And demandin' of her how she came to be so stabbed, she (to Proctor now) Ã¢â¬â testify it were your wife's familiar spirit pushed it in! Ã¢â¬ (Act 2) Unfortunately for Abigai l, her plan of getting rid of Elizabeth and marrying John backfires and John Proctor hangs and Elizabeth lives. John Proctor hangs because of Abigail. When John Proctor has Mary Warren tell the truth to the judges the girls turn on him and Mary. Then Mary gets scared and says John bewitched her into saying all that so she doesn't get in trouble. John is accused of witchcraft and confesses.But then the judge has him sign a paper saying he did it and Proctor refuses because he knows it will be hung on the church door and he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want his name ruined. In the book he says, Ã¢â¬Å"Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! Because I am not worth the dust on the feet of them that hang! How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my nameÃ¢â¬ (Act 4)! After all this happens, Abigail is afraid someone like Hale will start convincing people that she has been lying. Worried about this, Abigail and Mercy steal Parris' stuff and then run away.There is also a lot of revenge in The Scarlet Letter. Hester Prynne seeks revenge in the book. In the book, Hester is alienated from the rest of the town and I'm sure it made it pretty miserable for her. A good quote from the book that shows how she was isolated from the town and the people of the town is this: Ã¢â¬Å"Measured by the prisonerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience, however, it might reckoned a journey of some length; for, haughty as her demeanor was, she perchance underwent an agony from every footstep of those that thronged to see her, as if her heart had been flung in the street for them to spurn and trample upon. (page 53) In the book, Hester committed adultery with Dimmesdale and is forced to where the scarlet Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ on her clothing for adultery. This makes her an outcast to the rest of the community. The other people of the town were somewhat cruel. Some examples of them treating them cruelly is when the kids threw mud at her a nd Pearl until Pearl chased them away. Another example is when Bellingworth and Wilson tease Pearl and call her a demon child and bird. Hester nearly got her revenge by escaping to England with her lover, Dimmesdale, but Dimmesdale dies.The main person who seeks revenge in The Scarlet Letter is Roger Chillingworth. From the very beginning of the story, Chillingworth is obsessed with trying to find out who his wife, Hester, slept with. He is extremely jealous and angry she did this and his only life goal is to find out who it is. When Dimmesdale gets sick, Chillingworth is already suspicious of this man so he takes up the opportunity to become his Ã¢â¬Å"doctor. Ã¢â¬ Chillingworth pretends to be nice and friendly to Dimmesdale as Dimmesdale is sick because he is he feels bad for committing adultery and no telling anyone.The author also hints that Chillingworth is making Dimmesdale sicker instead of helping him get better. In the book, Chillingworth slowly tortures Dimmesdale with his guilt for what he did. Chillingworth did a few things to torture Dimmesdale. His presence was torture because it was a constant reminder of his sin of adultery. In the book Chillingworth mentions that lying is against God a lot to make Dimmesdale feel bad for what he did. On top of all this, Chillingworth was caring for Dimmesdale so he could have been poisoning him.Dimmesdale cannot handle this torture and extreme guilt he feels and starts harming himself physically. In the book it says, Ã¢â¬Å"In Mr. DimmesdaleÃ¢â¬â¢s secret closet, under lock and key, there was a bloody scourgeÃ¢â¬ (page 141). He harms himself by whipping himself and among other ways. Finally, Dimmesdale can't take it anymore and reveals what he did to the town. Chillingworth tries to stop him, because if he says it, then it's over and Chillingworth can't torture him anymore. In the book Chillingworth yells to Dimmesdale, Ã¢â¬Å"Do not blacken your fame and perish in dishonor.I can yet save youÃ¢â¬ (p age 235)! After that, Dimmesdale dies because he allows his guilt to just destroy him. When Dimmesdale dies, Chillingworth has no point in life anymore so he soon after dies too. After all this Hester goes back to her house in her old life. She is depressed because she was so close to having a great life with Dimmesdale. Ã¢â¬Å"But there was a more real life for Hester Prynne here, in New England, than in that unknown region where Pearl had found a home. Here had been her sin; here, her sorrow; and here was yet to be her penitence.She had returned, therefore, and resumed,Ã¢â¬âof her own free will, for not the sternest magistrate of that iron period would have imposed it,Ã¢â¬âresumed the symbol of which we have related so dark a tale. Never afterwards did it quit her bosom. But . . . the scarlet letter ceased to be a stigma which attracted the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s scorn and bitterness, and became a type of something to be sorrowed over, and looked upon with awe, and yet with reverenc e, too. Ã¢â¬ (Page 257) In The Crucible, there seems to be revenge mostly just jealousy.In this play, itÃ¢â¬â¢s mostly out of jealousy because Abigail wishes she was JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s husband and is jealous of Elizabeth. She does her revenge by trying to get her convicted of witchcraft which in the end backfires because Elizabeth lives and John dies. In The Scarlet Letter there is mostly revenge because Chillingworth loathes Dimmesdale because he slept with his wife. Chillingworth does his revenge by torturing Dimmesdale with guilt but this also backfires because Dimmesdale gets out of it and Chillingworth dies because he has nothing else to live for. To conclude, The Crucible and The
Friday, 30 August 2019
SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ In the Rain Music Analysis SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ In The Rain (Kelly/Donan, 1952) is known to be one of best musicals ever made and one of the funniest movies of its time. This statistic can be attributed to the musical numbers that it incorporates. SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Rain uses popular music of its time that people may already be familiar with. It works to seamlessly integrate them into a musical about the transition of film from silent to talkies. Additionally, the film is able to utilize them in such a way that every single song contributes to the overall effect of the film in some way.Each song either pushes and develops the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicts or establishes one of the protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ goals or interests; they use deception of sound or visual presentation like dance to support them. The first number that stands out in the film is the song shown during DonÃ¢â¬â¢s interview in which he talks about his road to success in Hollywood. Although he speaks about attend ing school and performing for the best, visually the song depicts Don and Cosmo doing a dance and fiddle performance for an underwhelmed crowd. Even though they show obvious expertise, the audience clearly do not think very much of the performers when they finish.DonÃ¢â¬â¢s uphill climb is hardly the glorious journey that he is describing it as. The music not only shows a disjoint between the narrations and actions, but also introduces us to DonÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view and the deceptiveness of his Hollywood career in comparison to his real life. This whole sequence helps the film get across to the viewer DonÃ¢â¬â¢s character, showing us his interest in falsifying his life in order to stay at the pinnacle of pop culture. A second piece with similar intentions is when Lina sings Ã¢â¬Å"SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ in the RainÃ¢â¬ towards the end of the movie.This is a crucial point in the movie because Lina feels that she feels that she has the company at her feet. Of course, it is actually K athy behind the curtains singing while Lina is mouthing the lyrics on stage. The audience see Linda singing, but hear KathyÃ¢â¬â¢s voice. This scene presents the primary conflict of Lina clashing with Kathy while again utilizing sound deception. Another number that stands out is the first rendition of the title song, Ã¢â¬Å"SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ in the Rain. Ã¢â¬ Don and Kathy had just decided to turn The Dueling Cavalier into a musical, and when Don leaves her apartment, he begins to sing.This number shows us that he has fallen in love with Kathy and, as he dances and sings loudly through the streets, that he intends for everyone to know. He feels jovial about his situation even though it would likely destroy his reputation if people found out that Don and Lina are no longer Ã¢â¬Å"household namesÃ¢â¬ like Ã¢â¬Å"bread and butter. Ã¢â¬ This number not only shows us his interest in a relationship with Kathy, but also introduces Don's newly found conflict to the viewers. Finally, the musical sequence in the very last scene during which Don sings, Ã¢â¬Å"You are my Lucky StarÃ¢â¬ is an effective one.As the very end of a Hollywood movie, this song has the responsibility of wrapping the conflict up while also getting Don and Kathy together, which is exactly what it does. Don exclaims Kathy as the real star of The Dueling Cavalier, and just as she realizes what he had done for her, he begins to sing to her. The song does a great job of showing their deep love for each other and also resolving all loose ends; by showing KathyÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view with her acceptance of DonÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, and the revelation to the masses of their love for each other, it provides an apt ending to a movie for the ages.From start to finish, the music in Ã¢â¬Å"SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ In the RainÃ¢â¬ does an outstanding job of merging with the film, even though most of them already existed before the film was created. They empower the film to carry emotion and advance easily, while also allowing the film to remain light and comical. Pieces play with deception and manipulation of sound, while others leave you in awe with their complex dance performances. Each musical number in SinginÃ¢â¬â¢ In The Rain plays a unique and crucial role, and it is because of them that this film has become one of the most widely renowned in American history.
Thursday, 29 August 2019
An In Depth Interview Psychology Essay What is research. When asked, most people would answer questionnaires or surveys. These kinds of research people more familiar with are quantitative research. However, in this article, the main focus is on qualitative research, which is widely used in academic and professional areas (Holliday, 2002). So, what is quantitative research? Mason (2002:1) believes that: Ã¢â¬Å"Through qualitative research we can explore a wide array of dimensions of the social world, including the texture and weave of everyday life, the understanding, experiences and imagining of our research participants, the ways that social processes, institutions, discourses or relationship work, and the significance of the meaning that they generate.Ã¢â¬ Therefore, from this perspective, it could be derived that for qualitative research, pure statistic and numerical data are not sufficient. It needs more description evidence to discover the subjective qualities that govern human behaviours (Holliday, 2002). The so called Ã¢â¬Ëthick descriptionÃ¢â¬â¢, which could be collected through interview, observation or other methods, is the basis for qualitative researchers to understand and explore the social world(Draper, 2004). Due to the complexity of modern society, there are many problems emerged when conducting qualitative researches, for instance, the ethical dilemmas. In order to get a more critical view of qualitative research, the distinction between qualitative research and quantitative research will be highlighted first. Then two typical qualitative research methods, in-depth interview and participate observation, will be critically examined. Followed by that, three examples will be used to further illustrate the challenges of qualitative research. In the end, a conclusion regarding the merits and demerits of qualitative research will be drawn. Two paradigms Primarily, the philosophical basis for qualitative research and quantitative research are different. Both Holliday (2002) and Dra per (2004) state that quantitative research believes that by using right quantitative measurements people could reveal objective facts, while qualitative research rooted in interpretive tradition, which focus on exploring the underlying meanings of social phenomena. As a result, qualitative and quantitative research differ in their analytical process, research design, methods of collecting data and the approach to analyse and interpret data(Draper, 2004). Rather than by using a deductive process, qualitative research prefers inductive procedure (Gephart, 2004). Therefore, qualitative research provides extra opportunities for researchers to discover insight views and get new understandings of social phenomena (Willig, 2008). Also, Gephart (2004) states that the Ã¢â¬Ëthick descriptionÃ¢â¬â¢ provided by qualitative research enriches the basis for understanding the social world. However, qualitative research also has its own limitations. As Willig (2008) points out that qualitative research do not ensure certainty, the objectivity of researcher is not realistic and the results are not predictive, since qualitative studies always carry out with small sample size but in depth. Moreover, similar qualitative studies due to the different use of methods are impossible to compare or integrate (Willig, 2008). As a consequence, Draper (2004) suggests, although qualitative and quantitative researches are different from their ontological foundation, they could complement each other. In addition, recent studies (Bryman, 2006; Kinn and Curzio, 2005; Sherman and Strang, 2004) show that there is a growth trend of combining these two methods together, in spite of the continuation of debate about integrating qualitative and quantitative methods. After examining the merits and demerits of qualitative research, it is the time to discuss the two dominant methods used in qualitative research, in-depth interview and participant observation.
Wednesday, 28 August 2019
In what ways has Japan succeeded in shaping international politics in the Asia-Pacific without reviving memories of its past aggression - Essay Example Since the end of the Second World War, Japan withdrew from international politics, mostly because of measures imposed by the United States and by its Asian neighbours who suffered JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s aggression during the Second World War. And now after more than half a century of withdrawal from international politics, Japan is now slowly becoming a major player in the international scene. This paper shall discuss JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s re-entry into international politics, particularly focusing on JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s role in the Asia-Pacific region. Japan has been successful in playing a major role in international politics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region through its adoption of its multi-tiered approach. This multi-tiered approach which has been adopted to improve international cooperation among the Asia-Pacific nations is a new policy perspective which Ã¢â¬Å"packages different types of coordination among region states, including bilateral, multilateral, and minilateral or subregional, in a layered hierarchical mannerÃ¢â¬ (Ashizawa, 2003, p. 361). Through this approach Japan has managed to maintain its enthusiasm for multilateral agreements even with countless criticisms on its significance and effectiveness. Through the multi-tiered approach, Japan has managed to maintain its security arrangements with the United States (Ashizawa, 2003, p. 361). And in applying such arrangements, Japan was able to form more connections with Asia-Pacific nations. With the adoption of new changes in its regional security order, the s elf-recognition of its status as a major power, and through its imposed constitutional constraints, Japan has managed to apply the multi-tiered approach as an effective approach in shaping its security policy and international relations 50 years after the Second World War (Ashizawa, 2003, p. 361). As far as its Asian neighbours are concerned, Japan has been trying
Tuesday, 27 August 2019
The Nine book - Research Paper Example while looking at the import of the court (Toobin). The court through time since inception has been lucky to hear and determine matters of every nature, ranging from abortion, civil rights, freedom of speech, privacy and the rights of criminal suspects. The court by listening to and determining these matters set precedents for itself and other inferior courts of the land by which they are bound. This paper looks at some of these cases while looking to analyze them in detail (Toobin). The author in page 50 decided to look at this case because it sought to challenge a pivotal case in the abortion regime of law, the decided case of Roe v. Wade. No. 410 U.S. 113. Supreme Court. 1973 which had established the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right under the 14th Amendment to procure an abortion on her own terms balanced against the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s rights to protecting the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s rights and prenatal care. The Planned Parenthood case sought to propose a new legal framework to replace the status quo held by Roe v. Wade (Toobin). It sought in page 52 to introduce the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëundue burdenÃ¢â¬â¢ to the woman, ensuring that this was the only way in which the state would have an opportunity to act on regulations against the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy as regards the procedure. The author posits in page 58 that the final judgment of the court ensured that the Roe v. Wade had been recast by ensuring that the state would not prohibit early-term abortions which was reflective of public opinion at the time (Toobin). The issue of abortion at this point was well settled, with the majority of public opinion inkling towards the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to control her body. The one arm of society that did not feel the same way was the religious arm of society. This is because they felt that human beings were losing the religious battle by playing God in deciding whether or not a baby lives or dies. At page 90, the author informs us of the struggle by the
Monday, 26 August 2019
Racism and Society - Essay Example It should be stated that racial categories are variable and mostly depend on the meanings inserted by contemporaries. According to some scholars, it is wrong to consider the concept of race politically neutral. It always contain, even if just implicitly, the idea of conflict of interests. Omi and Winant state "race is a concept, which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and interests, by referring to different types of human bodies" (55). Some sociologists state that the notion of race has always been filled with some socio-cultural meaning, demonstrating an attitude towards 'aliens' expressed through the emphasizing of their most observable physical differences. In other words, sociologists consider that physical marks reflect not the objective reality, but subjective attitude. According to Robert Park (237-239, 315), a racial mark has become the symbol of the suspense, in the ground of which has laid the sense of self-vulnerability. He writes that a sociologist is interested not in physical distinctions, differentiating one race from another, but in less evident lineaments of inner apprehensions. And physical distinctions are just the symbols of these inner apprehensions. Park claims that historical process in the issue is predetermined by the ideological factors, not by the biological ones. The more important is to realize what people believe in and look for, than to know who they are.In other words modern sociolo gists, considering race as an artificial construct and one of means of creation and description the identity, emphasize that race remains to be rather important notion, which determines and legalizes social and political actions of people. At the same time they are sure that race is a product of racism, and not contrariwise. From this point of view groups, which are called racial, turn out to be 'racialised'. It means that social, political, or economical state of these groups is described with the help of racial categories.A lot of scholars for decades have oppugned against scientific racism, which has tried to ground the idea of racial inequality. They have proved that human capabilities do not depend on the color of the skin or type of eyes. One of the most outstanding representatives of this stream is Ashley Montague, who from 1940s has insisted that race is just a scientific phantom.However a lot of scholars as before consider race and ethnos as some biological reality, underes timating the paramount role of social factor. "While racism is necessarily rooted in biology, ethnocentrism is typically rooted in culture," says D'Souza (33). Nonetheless most of scholars have understood that race is rather social construct then the biological reality, and that the concept of race implicates relationship of dominance and submission. Does racism still exist It should be said that it is rather difficult to define the notion of racism. In fact this concept has an extraordinary ability to mimicry, changing itself in accordance with the circumstances. Besides
Sunday, 25 August 2019
Strategic management - Essay Example From the report, it is clear that the greatest threats that face Kepak Group are the increase in costs for the beef industry in terms of technology and the threat from cheaper beef from South America. However, they have major opportunities in the increase of population and evolving diets in Asia. This has informed their strategy. Table of Contents Contents Page 1. Executive SummaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦2 2. IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦4 3. KepakÃ¢â¬â¢s Business EnvironmentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦......4 4. KepakÃ¢â¬â¢s current strategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦7 5. Appraisal of KepakÃ¢â¬â¢s Business StrategyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...10 6. ReferencesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.12 7. AppendixÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..13 REVIEW OF THE STRATEGIC SITUATION OF KEPAK Introduction Kepak Group is a dynamic and young business that has become a leading company for food processing in Europe. Their success has been informed by their belief in pursuing a partnership approach through the development of customer relationships. The company is dedicated to consumer focus, brand management, innovation, as well as unwavering commitment to ensuring food safety. Because of volatile market requirements, Kepak Group continues to provide its consumers with quality products at prices that are competitive. Their operations are divided into three business units that comprise of Agra Trading, Kepak Convenience Foods, and Kepak Meat Division. Each of this division plays a crucial role in the expansion and growth of Kepak Grou p. The group processes more than 25,000 tons of consumer foods, 1.5 million lambs, and 30,000 cattle every year and has more than Ã¢â ¬750 million in turnover, employing in excess of 2,000 people. They have nine facilities for manufacturing across Ireland, as well as the UK, with sales presence in major countries in the EU and globally and a South American operations office. KepakÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Environment PEST Analysis Political factors: With regards to the WTO, the lift from a successful DOHA Round deal would have to be balanced, as well as take IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s agricultural interests into account. IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s department of Agriculture continues to show strong reservations concerning current agricultural proposals in agricultural, particularly its potential effects on the Irish beef industry (Garavan, 2011: p43). It is estimated that Irish cattle prices could drop by 9% with output value of Irish beef dropping by Ã¢â ¬120m. A tariff reduction of 23%, furthermore, unde r sensitive designation of products would see beef imports increasing in the EU by 30%. Alternatively, if beef is not designated as a sensitive product, its negative impact on agriculture in Ireland could be higher. These circumstances, which would lead to a 70% tariff cut, would result in a drop in price for Irish beef, by more than 28% before the year 2017 and an annual beef output fall of Ã¢â ¬380m every year. Economic factors: The recent years have seen fluctuations of commodity prices, especially for beef and cereals. The medium-term products concerning agricultural commodities, despite the economic crisis, are promising (Garavan, 2011: p45). Changing dietary patterns, improved living
The Relationship Between the Retail Price of Gasoline and the World Demand for Crude Oil - Essay Example It can found in much abundance in one place which cease to exist at some other country. This instability in the geographic distribution of crude oil makes it quite an important resource to be present in any country. The countries with its abundant deposits are on the top of the food chain economically and the countries with lesser deposits of it are quite weak economically. Hence proving the significance of crude oil for economies. Now crude oil is not only used for production of Gasoline but many other petroleum products are extracted from it. From this we can extract that crude oil has more demand as a commodity and is not only required for the production of gasoline. Gasoline is a refined form of crude oil. Crude oil is extracted or purchased in raw form and goes through various refining processes to produce gasoline. Gasoline has become as the basic commodity which has been in use for decades now as the primary fuel for powering transportation. The transportation requirements hav e been increasing each year as the population of the world increases by a significant percentage each year. Hence increasing the amount of fuel being consumed each year and the demand for gasoline. Now gasoline and crude oil have developed a relationship in which the demand for both are increasing but Gasoline is dependent on crude oil for its production hence making it the dependent product. The global demand for both gasoline and crude oil is on the rise and with no new large deposits being excavated the supply is not increasing much and the demand is growing making the prices for both oil and gasoline head upward. The gasoline we purchase majorly includes the cost of Crude oil , the refining , marketing and distribution and the taxes. So from this we can infer that there is a inversely relationship between the supply of crude oil and the price of gasoline. Also in the years we have seen where the oil prices have dropped but gasoline prices have risen which is due to the fact that there are disruptions in the supply of oil due to unrest in the middle east. (Fuel, 2011) We also can observe this for a fact that the prices of gasoline rise accordingly with the rise of crude oil price but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t fall at the same rate when price of crude oil falls. The matter behind this fact is that when prices are high , the retailer have to increase it so that they cover up for their profit margins but what makes the retailers bring price down when the price for crude oil falls is competition. In competition the retailers bring down a few cents to draw in more customers and so on the process continues until they reach a point where they reach their original profit margins or the price of crude oil again increases. Also the demand imbalance of gasoline across various seasons also has an effect on retail pricing of gasoline. (US Energy Information Administration, 2003) 2. Explain what Marathon could do to keep the price at the pump the same without losing profits if g lobal crude production decreased by 10%. In such a situation strategic alliances should be formed on the basis of which Marathon can make bulk purchases and at cheaper rates. If such step is not taken then Marathon will not be able to maintain a stable profit margin. By doing this Marathon will be able to purchase inventory to stock up at cheaper costs and also at the same time have enough fuel supply which would be enough to carry out operations even if there is a supply disruption of crude oil. Marathon can employee the use of
Saturday, 24 August 2019
Sociology (Race and Ethnicity) - Assignment Example Addressing the issue of racial profiling, I strongly feel that with the current threat of terrorism to the society and the increased incidence of terrorist attacks, it becomes absolutely essential to implement the strictest possible measures of security. We need to understand that nothing is more valuable than human life. Therefore, if the protection of human life causes us some inconvenience we should be cooperative. It obviously is very important to keep the sensitivities of the citizens of a country in mind and the criteria for racial profiling must be such that it is based on authentic evidence f a personÃ¢â¬â¢s identity and should not merely rely on the physical appearance of a person because that can hurt the sentiments of people. This issue was realized by the Bush Administration after which a ban was placed on Racial Profiling (US Department ofJustice , 1). Works Cited Saney, Isaac. "The Origins of Racism." AfricVoice 1 February 2007. Web. : 1 and 4. US Department ofJustice . Fact Sheet: Racial Profiling. 17 June 2003.Web.
Friday, 23 August 2019
Cyber Security and Startups - Case Study Example A small company can protect itself from DDoS attacks by registering for website hosting services with giant organizations like Amazon and Google that can hold bulky flows of attack transfer. Another way to protect against DDoS attacks can be through subscribing for mitigation services that monitor the flow of data from servers and other data sources (Perlroth & Wortham, 2014). These strategies enable smaller companies to block the viruses that block the smooth scream of information or access to important resources. Small tech start-ups have become frequent targets of the attacks because they possess valuable data that the DDoS attack can hurt (Perlroth & Wortham, 2014). New companies attract numerous users who visit their websites for information concerning the firm. They do not also install security measures to protect against such attacks, which make them vulnerable to pay the ransom demanded. It is apparent that the attackers target new establishments that do not have the experience of dealing with modern elements of cyber attacks. The post clearly illustrates the meaning of DDoS attack and the various ways of avoiding such challenges. However, the writer does not give a detailed analysis of the attack and how small companies are the prime targets. This causes confusion, especially regarding the ransom charges since the post indicates two conflicting charges of $20 and $2000. The charges posted here reflect the ones that future DDoS attackers might demand and not the current
Thursday, 22 August 2019
Happiness Found in Happy Prince by Oscar Wilde Essay Most heroism deals with promotion of virtue and reproach of vice. Sloughing off from such a hackneyed, yet widely used frame of thought, the novel Ã¢â¬ËThe Happy PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢ (1888) by Oscar Wilde connects heroism with compassion. With a subconscious reminiscent between Ã¢â¬ËcourageÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËheroÃ¢â¬â¢, compassion is generally not a primary association with a strong image of a hero. Oscar Wilde however, through utilization of Ã¢â¬Ëthe happy princeÃ¢â¬â¢ as a mechanism, conveys the idea of compassion and sacrifice which consists of happiness and beauty under a plot of heroism. The compassion felt by the Happy Prince can be distinguished in two levels of analysis: on himself and on the poor. The Happy Prince, once a real prince who lived within absolute extravagance, had a life far from poverty, hunger or servility. Upon encountering the inferior reality of civilian faces after becoming a statue, the Happy Prince expresses his compassion on himself by saying: Ã¢â¬Å"My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, and happy indeed I was, if pleasure be happiness. (5)This distinction indicates the realization of the Happy Prince on the difference between aesthetic happiness and materialistic pleasure. It also foreshadows the displacement of the Happy PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢s compassion from his own past self to the poor, which causes heroic action by the Happy Prince. The jewels sent by the Happy Prince to the poor in the novel are not just simple sapphires or gold. Rather, they are Ã¢â¬ËtrueÃ¢â¬â¢ jewels resulted from self compassion. Such open-mindedness of the Happy Prince allows him to be penitent for his past misdeeds and sacrifice himself to supplement such faults, which resulted in promotion of the common good. History tells us that those who are titled as Ã¢â¬ËleadersÃ¢â¬â¢ sacrifice themselves for others. Regardless of how much sacrifice they burden, all leaders have a certain extent of private loss to yield common welfare. Similarly, the story Ã¢â¬ËThe Happy PrinceÃ¢â¬â¢ also depicts heroism based on sacrifice. In the novel, the Happy Prince, having beauty as a single reason for its production, sacrifices himself to the non haves on the streets by distributing his jewels through the help of a sparrow. Since the purpose for its existence diminishes, the mayor of the city eventually destroys the statue of the Happy Prince. The point Oscar Wilde makes at this part is that action for others with sincerity and truthfulness overwhelms the loss one gets through such action. As Erich Fromm, a German philosopher wrote in his book, Ã¢â¬ËTo Have or To BeÃ¢â¬â¢, property without purpose loses the value of it and absence with a purpose is more valued than its presence. Having firm belief on his action, the Happy Prince was able to practice his heroism. Mother Theresa said she lived a happy life. Her Ã¢â¬Ëhappy lifeÃ¢â¬â¢, Mother Theresa said, seems to overlap with the life the Happy Prince lived as a statue. They both gave everything they had for others and earned happiness as exchange. Compassion and sacrifice may be a true key to opening a treasure box full of happiness and beauty.
Wednesday, 21 August 2019
How Photographic Depictions of Children have Changed Jade Leslie With reference to the work of Higonnet and Holland, show how photographic depictions of children have changed over the last century. What are the strengths of photography as a medium for capturing the essence of childhood? Intro Photographic images provide us with a snapshot of the past and present, they hold past momentÃ¢â¬â¢s static for us to view even though they no longer exist. They provide us with visions of places and people we may never meet and fantasies, they are powerful for their seeming reality. Photography offers both reality and illusion. Photographs brings visual delight Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦about the dream of childhood and its persistent nightmareÃ¢â¬ (Holland, 1992: 8). According to Higonnet (1998; 7) Ã¢â¬Å"pictures of children areÃ¢â¬ ¦. the most sacred and the most controversial images of our timeÃ¢â¬ . While they protect the ideal of childhood innocence images can also potential damage this ideal. Imagery is a vital part of social meaning they continuously provide viewers to new versions on subjects such as childhood (Holland, 2004). In this essay I will look at how imagery of children have changed in the last century, focusing on the debates of how innocence and sexuality and the changes and sim Image 1 Millais Cherry Ripe (1879) Julia Margaret Cameron Image 2 Ã¢â¬ËI waitÃ¢â¬â¢ (1872) http://media.kunst-fuer-alle.de/img/36/g/36_67418~_sir-john-everett-millais_cherry-ripe,-1879.jpg http://thevictorianist.blogspot.co.uk/2010/10/julia-margaret-cameron.html All visual images of childhood innocence was invented and refined by paintings and illustrations from the 18th century to the early 20th century (Higonnet, 1998; 78). They were then transferred into photography. Paintings and illustrations of children allow us to really see perfect innocence, however photographs does this more convincingly (Higonnet, 1998; 86). The notion of the romantic childhood spread into popular painting such as Image 1 by Sir Everett Millais which has since been reprinted and used in advertisements of soap, during the time of production this was associated with cleanliness and purity (Holland, 2004). I included this image as I feel it is important to see how elements of earlier paintings are used in contemporary images of children. In Cherry Ripe the young girl is dressed in typical romantic childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s clothing which has been related to innocence (Higonnet, 1998; 51). All romantic children wear costumes and have connections with nature just like we see i n Cherry Ripe where the painting is set outdoors surrounding by nature and fruit. Julia Margaret Cameron Ã¢â¬ËI waitÃ¢â¬â¢ displays angelic innocence depicted in early photography. Childhood innocence was viewed as sacred, pure and children are dressed in costumes of angels or cherubs to visualise this notion. Anne Geddes Image 3Image 4Image 5 http://villagewitchblog.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/68079-anne-geddes-baby-wallpapers-prints-desktop-wallpaper.jpg http://www.angusrobertson.com.au/calendar/betsy-cameron-angels/13600025/ We see a continuation of these themes in photographs by Anne Geddes. Her images represent a modern take of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of childhood innocence (image 3, 4 and 5). These images are what we commonly see on calendars and greeting cards. In these images the children are dressed in costumes, wearing angel wings, dressed in white and have connections with nature. They represent childhood as being pure, vulnerable, close to nature and precious to be nurtured and loved. Just as we see in images 1 and 2 they represent the idyllic childhood and unspoiled innocence. According to Higonnet (1998; 78) Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦Geddes make childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies unreal and belong to an unreal worldÃ¢â¬ . Digital photography and new technology has allowed this and images now have no limitations. The children in Geddes images have a magical feel the children seem unreal without making them enticing or available. Higonnet (1998; 78) states that successful commercial images like this make the children s eem there and yet not there. Geddes photographs draw on childhood innocence just as earlier depictions of childhood by Julia Margaret Cameron (image 2) and paintings by MillaisÃ¢â¬â¢s Cherry Ripe (1879 image 1) as they have similar themes in representing children as sacred in white clothing or dressed as angels and having connections with nature. Many of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s commercial photographs of children have the same characteristics of those from the 19th century where children are dressed up or are angels, cherubs, fairies and miniature adults They remain similar with their Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦romantic precedentsÃ¢â¬ , centred on making childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bodies look innocent (Higonnet, 1998; 76). They all conform to visual expectations of childhood. Ã¢â¬Å"They show us what we want childhood to beÃ¢â¬ (Higonnet, 1998; 86), if images go against this idealised romantic notion of children being fragile, innocence and pure it causes discomfort to viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s convention of childhood and causes controversy. The early 19th century photographs of cherub and angelic children continues to carry a powerful visual reference as the quintessence of childhood (Holland, 2004; 9). During the late 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s Sally Mann began to challenge the earlier ideas of the romantic childhood. Mann used her own children to represent her version of childhood. She captured their most vulnerable and natural moments, many of these photos contained them in the nude or semi-nude. MannÃ¢â¬â¢s pictures displayed childhood in a natural form not the idealised versions from early images. Image 6 Ã¢â¬Å"Candy CigaretteÃ¢â¬ Sally Mann (1989)Image 7 Ã¢â¬Å"Jessie at fiveÃ¢â¬ Sally Mann (1987) http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/art-or-abuse-a-lament-for-lost-innocence-2078397.html http://lamblegs.wordpress.com/2010/05/25/sally-manns-immediate-family/ Image 6 and 7 captures how the children innocently play using simple props such as jewellery and candy cigarettes. On first glance this appears to be innocent however, they can also be a threat to the children in the form of potential sexuality. In image 6 MannÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter balances a candy cigarette in her hand and resembles how an adult would hold it. Her facial expression, posture and the way her hair is parted on the side makes her look older than her years. The background of the photo is dark making Jessie stand out drawing you to focus directly at her. This picture has caused controversy due to the children mimicking adults and smoking. Children do mimic adults in their play. She is not smoking a real cigarette she is pretending. I feel this image displays how children are losing their innocence why also being innocent young girls enjoy trying out adult roles in their play scenarios (Holland, 2004) and are influenced by what they see in their daily lives. This image reflect the reality of how society affects children, they are copying actions what they see through media and their daily lives and are applying it to their play. In image 7 Jessie at five the central girl snakes outwards highlighting her naked torso, her pose has a sexual tone, she lures at the viewer, her shoulders are placed in an inviting way to show off her bare chest as if she is inviting you to go to her. She wears a pearl necklace, is made up with lipstick this makes her look like she is in her teens, or modelling for a fashion magazine. This conveys Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ conflicting messages of childhood innocence and adult sexualityÃ¢â¬ (Higonnet, 1998; 195), if you were unable to see her pre-pubescent body people could be easily confused to thinking she was older. Due to the posture and lack of clothing of Jessie, it suggests it could be sexually intended rather than children simply playing dress up. Jessie contrasts the two other girls pictured dressed in traditional clothing of childhood innocence. I feel that MannÃ¢â¬â¢s work displays more realistic images of childhood than earlier images, children are not always angels and pure as suggest in the 19th century. Children enjoy experimenting playing adult roles and these images capture children doing precisely this. MannÃ¢â¬â¢s work remains a subject of controversy due to the nude and provocative images of her children which aroused great critical debate as it challenged the romanticised essence of childhood (Scally, 2012). It has also been suggested that Mann is sexualising her own children putting them at risk of sexual exploitation. According to Zurbriggen et al (2003) MannÃ¢â¬â¢s images make young children vulnerable. Savage (2011; 109) argues that MannÃ¢â¬â¢s images has Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the ability to unnerve, to represent without apology, and to suggest the sensuality on childhood play and, perhaps inadvertently shatter the myth of innocenceÃ¢â¬ . Supporter of MannÃ¢â¬â¢s work argue that any sexual thoughts that arise from these images are a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦result of less-than-innocent readingsÃ¢â¬ (Savage, 2011; 107). Mann has defended herself, stating that her work is natural through the eyes of a mother, since she has seen her children in every state: happy, sad, playful, sick, bloodied, angry and even naked. (Independent, 2010). According to Higonnet (1998; 203) MannÃ¢â¬â¢s pictures upset cherished conventions of idyllic childhood. These images do not conform to the idealistic view of childhood they create discomfort as the go against social norms and unsettle traditional representations of childhood (Miller, 2005). In my opinion these two images. Something about child abuse. During the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s childhood was under attack and was being pushed into adulthood by the mass media (Elkind, 1981; Postman, 1982). Many academics note that this was a time when childhood as we once knew it was lost. Postman (1983) argues that television and the use of children in advertising of clothing and adult products has influenced the disappearance of childhood as there has been a tendency to advertise children wearing clothing which resemble adult fashion, this is seen in image ? and ? Reference in hendrick chapter 2. Young girls have been increasing targeted by advertisements and it has been suggested it encouraged young girls to grow up too quickly and become sexually promiscuous (Linn, 2004; Schol, 2004). Boulton (2007) states that advertisements depict the child model as a Ã¢â¬Ënascent adultÃ¢â¬â¢ Images ? and ? display the current culture of childhood depictions which have become increasing more sexualised. Popular images of little girls as alluring and seductive at once innocent and highly erotic are contained in the most respectable and mundane of locations, broadsheets, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s magazines and television adverts. http://innewyorkparistomorrow.blogspot.co.uk/2011_01_01_archive.html http://live.drjays.com/index.php/2011/01/06/has-french-vogue-taken-child-models-too-far/ Images ? is from a French edition of Vogue magazine. The young model is photographed high heels, lots of jewellery and heavy makeup. She is placed upon leopard skin. She is dressed in adults clothes her pose is confident and serious she is not smiling. According to Boulton (2007) this is a sign of dominance, when children mimic this powerful look they convey a sense of adult-like self- awareness often associated with precocious sexuality. The most worrying part of this image in the title Ã¢â¬Å"CadeauxÃ¢â¬ which is the French word for gifts, suggesting the model is a gift. Images like this with suggestive words have dangerous potential to exploit childhood by introducing adult sexuality into childhood innocence (Walkerdine, 1996; 326). What is seen as a fantasy for a young girl playing dress up can easily been transformed into a different fantasy for predatory adult men (Holland, 2004; 188). Children are increasingly subjected to social and economic forces that exploit them throug h the dynamics of sexualisation, commodification and commercialisation (Giroux, 2000; 44). Their innocence can often mask the sexualisation. The image of childhood innocence is now in jeopardy not just because it is being violated but because it was seriously flawed all along. The ideal of the child as object of adoration has turned too easily into the concept of the child as object and then into the marketing of the child as commodity (Direct quote, Hig, pg 194). Innocence feeds into enticing images of childlike purity as it simultaneously sexualises and markets such images (g, 60). Conclusion The image of childhood which was created in the 18th century has changed and has been replaced with new ideas and ways to picture childhood (Higonnet, 1998). Photographs have the ability to provide visual realism to a The notion of the disappearing child and the myth of childhood innocence often mirror and support each other. Within the myth of innocence children are often portrayed as inhabiting a world that is untainted, magical and utterly protected from the harshness of adult life (Giroux, 2000; 39). Innocence in this instance makes children invisible except as projections of adult fantasies (40). Bib Holland, P (1992) What is a Child? Popular Images of Childhood, London: Virago Press Miller, Andrea. Portrait of Family Values: Transgressions and Controversy in the Work of Sally Mann. Scally, P. (2012). In Context. Ethics and Visual Representation http://fir.ferris.edu:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2323/2498/Phil_Scally_Ethics_2012.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed 15/04/14) Art or abuse?: A lament for lost innocence http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/art-or-abuse-a-lament-for-lost-innocence-2078397.html Tuesday 14 September 2010
Tuesday, 20 August 2019
Global Review Of Market Entry Strategies Economics Essay When a firm is going to explore a foreign market, the choice of the best mode of entry is decided by the firms expansion strategy. The main aim of every business organization is to establish itself in the global market. Thus, the process calls for developing an effective international marketing strategy in order to identify the international opportunities, explore resources and capabilities, and utilize core competencies in order to better implement the overall international strategies. The decision of how to enter a foreign market can have a significant impact on the results. Companies can expand into foreign markets via the following four mechanisms: exporting, licensing, joint venture and direct investment (Meyer, Estrin, Bhaumik, and Peng, 2008). All of them have their advantages for the firm to explore as well as disadvantages which must be considered by the firms top management. What entry mode that a multinational company chooses has implications for how much resources the company must commit to its foreign operations, the risk that the company must bear, and the degree of control that the company can exercise over the operations on the new market. (Zekiri and Angelova,2011, pp 576) 1.1.1 Global Review of Market Entry Strategies Taylor, Zou and Island (1998) conducted a study on a transaction cost perspective on foreign market entry strategies of USA and Japanese firms and concluded that several transactions costs affected the decision making of market entry mode for the US firms but did not affect the market entry mode for Japanese firms. Meyer, Estrin, Bhaumik, and Peng (2008) conducted a study on Institutions, Resources, and Entry Strategies in Emerging Economies to investigate the impact of market-supporting institutions on business strategies by analyzing the entry strategies of foreign investors entering emerging economies. The authors made three contributions, to enrich an institution-based view of business strategy (Oliver, 1997; Peng, 2003; Peng, Wang, and Jiang, 2008) by providing a more fine-grained conceptual analysis of the relationship between institutional frameworks and entry strategies. Secondly, they argued that institutions moderate resource-based considerations when crafting entry strategies and finally, by amassing a primary survey database from four diverse but relatively underexplored countries and combining such data with archival data, they extended the geographic reach of empirical research on emerging countries. Stiegert, Ardalan, and Marsh (1997) conducted a study on foreign market entry strategies in the European Union where the study utilized intra-firm, socio-cultural, geographical-proximity, and political-stability variables to explain bimodal foreign direct investment (FDI) patterns by agri-food and beverage multinational companies into and within the European Union. A logit framework incorporated a unique-count database of firm-level investment patterns from 1987-1998 and the results showed the 1992 structural changes under the Maastricht Treaty increased the probability of wholly owned FDI modes such as greenfields and buyouts, and also found that past modal strategies of firms, language barriers, and exchange-rate volatility all correctly explained modal investment patterns. The authors asserted that these results provide important contributions toward understanding modal investment strategies including the role of macroeconomic changes within a custom union. Czinkota Ronkainen (2003) carried out a study on the motivation factors for market entry and asserted that several factors results in firms taking measures in a given direction as in the case of internationalization. These are a variety of motivations both pushing and pulling companies to internationalize which are differentiated into proactive and reactive motivations. 1.1.2 Market entry strategies for Multinationals in Kenya Multinational corporations (MNCs) operate in a global environment unfamiliar in political, economic, social, cultural, technological and legal aspects. Increased competition among multinational corporations and the entry of other players in the Kenyan market necessitate the design of competitive strategies that guarantee performance. Creating strategies for coping with competition is the heart of strategic management which is critical for the long term survival of any organization. MNCs in Kenya have adopted a number of strategies including: better quality, excellent customer service, innovation, differentiation, diversification, cost cutting measures, strategic alliances, joint venture, mergers/acquisitions and not forgetting lower prices, to weather competitive challenges. Kinuthia (2010) suggests that Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has risen in Kenya from the 1990s due to the liberalization of the economy. It is mainly concentrated in the manufacturing sector and is mainly Greenfield in nature. Most of FDI in Kenya is export oriented and market seeking. The most important FDI determinants are market size in Kenya as well as within the region, political and economic stability in both Kenya and its neighbours and bilateral trade agreements between Kenya and other countries. The most important FDI barriers in Kenya are political and economic instability in Kenya, crime and insecurity, institutional factors such as corruption, delayed licenses and work permits among other factors. According to the Financial Post (2010), well-established and hitherto dominant multinational companies in Kenya are suddenly finding themselves sailing in turbulent waters. The latest multinational to leave the scene with a bloodied nose is the 200-year-old Colgate Palmolive, a global business concern which begun in New York as a small soap and candle business. The list also includes, Johnson Johnson, Agip, Unilever, Procter Gamble, and recently, ExxonMobil, just to mention a few. The Financial Post (2010) suggests that majority of the multinationals who have so far relocated, shut down or downsized their operations consider Kenya as one of the least competitive investment destinations worldwide. Apart from the notoriously high cost of power in Kenya, difficulties in obtaining licenses and visas, inefficiencies at the Port of Mombasa and deteriorating infrastructure are among other non-tariff barriers to investment in this market. Financial Post (2010) notes that it is in the petro leum sector where the multinationals are finding it difficult to cope. A few years back, Agip shut down its pipes and sold out to BP Shell. BP sold it stake to Kenya Shell, a move that changed shareholding of BP Shell, which has been operating as a joint venture company. Recently, ExxonMobil sold its Kenya franchise to Tamoil, who will now take over the companys over 64 service stations countrywide. Ndegwa and Otieno (2008) conducted a study on market entry strategies for a transition country, Kenya, a case study that focused on mode of entry strategies that would be used by a Finnish firm, YIT Group to enter a developing country, Kenya. The focus was on motives to enter developing countries, the strategies used to enter developing countries, the factors influencing the decision of entry strategy, and finally problems facing companies entering developing markets experience. The study concluded that the most significant motive to enter developing countries is potential growth of the market, the most suitable entry mode strategy is joint venture, the most significant factor influencing the entry mode decision is the legal framework, and the largest problem experienced by companies investing in the country is bureaucracy. 1.1.3 Performance and non financial performance Performance Measures are quantitative or qualitative ways to characterize and define performance. They provide a tool for organizations to manage progress towards achieving predetermined goals, defining key indicators of organizational performance and Customer satisfaction. Performance Measurement is the process of assessing the progress made (actual) towards achieving the predetermined performance goals (baseline). Traditional, financially based performance measurement approaches have a number of serious drawbacks (Kaplan Norton, 1992). These include the element of outcome focus. Established financial indicators such as turnover and profit before tax are outcome indicators. Profitability measures the extent to which a business generates a profit from the factors of production: labour, management and capital. Profitability analysis focuses on the relationship between revenues and expenses and on the level of profits relative to the size of investment in the business (Gilbert and Whe elock, 2007). Four useful measures of firm profitability are the rate of return on firm assets (ROA), the rate of return on firm equity (ROE), operating profit margin and net firm income. The ROA measures the return to all firm assets and is often used as an overall index of profitability, and the higher the value, the more profitable the firm business. The ROE measures the rate of return on the owners equity employed in the firm business. It is useful to consider the ROE in relation to ROA to determine if the firm is making a profitable return on their borrowed money. The operating profit margin measures the returns to capital per dollar of gross firm revenue. Recall, the two ways a firm has of increasing profits is by increasing the profit per unit produced or by increasing the volume of production while maintaining the per unit profit. The operating profit margin focuses on the per unit produced component of earning profit and the asset turnover ratio (discussed below) focuses on the volume of production component of earning a profit (Crane, 2011). Net firm income comes directly off of the income statement and is calculated by matching firm revenues with the expenses incurred to create those revenues, plus the gain or loss on the sale of firm capital assets. Net firm income represents the return to the owner for unpaid operator and family labour, management and owners equity. Like working capital, net firm income is an absolute dollar amount and not a ratio, thus comparisons to other firms is difficult because of firm size differences (Gilbert and Wheelock, 2007). 1.1.4 Manufacturing Sector in Kenya Kenya has the biggest formal manufacturing sector in East Africa (UNIDO, 2008). This sector has grown over time both in terms of its contribution to the countrys GDP and employment. It is evident from these trends that the sector makes an important contribution to Kenyas economy (KAM, 2009). The average size of this sector for tropical Africa is 8 percent. Despite the importance and size of this sector in Kenya, it is still very small when compared to that of the industrialized nations (KIRDI, 2009). Awino (2007) and KObonyo (1999) argues that Kenyas manufacturing sector is going through a major transition period largely due to the structural reform process, which the Kenya government has been implementing since the mid-eighties with a view to improving the economic and social environment of the country. The manufacturing industry in Kenya can be classified under three main sectors, namely, the agro-based industrial sector, engineering and construction industrial sector and the chemical and mineral industrial sector (GOK Vision 2030). However, the three major classifications can still be categorized into two: (i) agro-based and non-agro-based (KObonyo, 1999). The agro-based industrial sector in Kenya consists of seven sub-sectors and provides the bulk (68 per cent) of value added from the manufacturing industry, (KAM, 2009). KObonyo (1999) argues that the agro-based industrial sector has developed on the basis of traditional domestic resource activities. The major challenges faced by this sector are related to the quantity, quality and price of raw materials mostly produced by small scale farmers. The seven sub-sectors that form the agro-based industrial sector are food processing, animal feeds, beverages and tobacco, miscellaneous food products, tannaries and leather products, woods and wood products and pulp and paper (Awino, 2007). 1.2 Problem Statement Mode of entry into an international market is the channel which organization that want to operate in international markets employ to gain entry to a new international market. The choice for a particular entry mode is a critical determinant in the successful running of a foreign operation. Therefore, decisions of how to enter a foreign market can have a significant impact on the results. However, it may seem that the use of particular strategies by international firms may yield higher growth and performance than others. There are several strategies that manufacturing firms can select from when they want to gain entry to a new international market such as exporting; licensing and franchising; strategic alliances; and wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. This study wants to investigate and indicate the particular modes of entry that manufacturing MNCs in Kenya use and of what value they are. Studies on the relationship between the choice of international market entry strategy and firm performance are abundant. These include Taylor and Zou (1999); Zekir and Angelova(2011) ; Chung and Enderwick (2001); Zand (2011); Sadaghiani, dehghan, and Zand (2011); and Mushuku(2006). There lacks conclusiveness on these studies about the choice of market entry strategy and firm performance. There exist glaring knowledge gaps as far as scarcity of local studies, context, conclusiveness and difference in opinions is concerned. This implies that there are scarce studies in developing economies such as Kenya. Studies on the choice of international market entry strategy and firm performance seem to concentrate on the developed and emerging countries which leave a knowledge gap for developing economies such as Kenya. There is a paucity/scarcity of studies on the marketing strategies techniques used by firms in Kenya and the researcher is not aware of any study that has been done on the influe nce of international market entry strategies on the performance of manufacturing multinationals in Kenya. This study therefore wishes to bridge this knowledge gap by assessing the influence of market entry strategies in manufacturing firms performance in Kenya. 1.3 Study Objectives The study attempts to achieve the following study objectives To identify the international market entry strategies by manufacturing multinationals in Kenya To establish the motive behind the choice of market entry strategies by manufacturing multinationals in Kenya To examine the influence of market entry strategies on the performance of manufacturing multinationals in Kenya 1.4 Significance of the study The study may be of use to management of manufacturing concerns in Kenya. This is because it will highlight the impact of choice of entry strategy to growth of a firm. Managers may therefore use these results to select the optimal strategies that would optimize growth of multinationals. The study will aid managers of prospective firms, and also those other people that want to go into other markets. The study will also provide ample information to those firms already in the market with strategies that are not working for them. The study results may be used by the implementation panel for vision 2030. Perhaps, they can craft a policy based on the study results that would increase the impact of entry strategies on growth of multinationals operating in Kenya. This would consequently lead to higher productivity and achievement of vision 2030 goal of annual economic growth of 10%. The study may also be a valuable addition to literature review and scholars of international business management, business strategy and growth. 1.4 Scope of the study There are several strategies that manufacturing firms can select from when they want to gain entry to a new international market such as exporting; licensing and franchising; strategic alliances; and wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. The study will restrict itself to market entry strategies and their influence on performance of multination manufacturing organizations. The scope of this study is the manufacturing sector. The manufacturing industry in Kenya can be classified under three main sectors, namely, the agro-based industrial sector, engineering and construction industrial sector and the chemical and mineral industrial sector (GOK Vision 2030). However, the three major classifications can still be categorized into two: (i) agro-based and non-agro-based (KObonyo, 1999). Kenyas main industries are food and beverages processing, manufacture of petroleum products, textiles and fibers, garments, tobacco, processed fruits, cement, paper, pyrethrum products, engineering, wood products, pharmaceuticals, basic chemicals, sugar, rubber, and plastics products. CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 Introduction This chapter reviewed the various theoretical concepts that have been explored in the study. Specifically, the study reviewed the concept of multinationals, market entry strategies and organizational performance. The empirical review addressed the various studies that have been done on the area. 2.1 Theoretical Review This section elaborates on various concepts that are being used in the study. For instance definitions of multinationals, market entry strategies and performance were given. 2.1.1 Multinationals A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) is a corporation enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation. They play an important role in globalization (Pitelis, and Sugden, 2000). Various attempts have been made in literature to capture the true richness of MNCs with definitions and concepts. Perlmutter (1969) for instance, used a taxonomy which was based on management styles namely geo-, poly- and ethnocentric to measure a firms degree of multinationality. Porter (1986) distinguished between multidomestic and global firms based on the configuration and coordination of the firms value chain. The framework developed by Prahalad and Doz (1987) offers a rather context oriented classification based on the nature of business, differentiating between global, multi-focal and local firms. Probably Bartletts and Ghoshals (1989) four-fold typology of multinational, international, global and transnational companies has been the most influential and extensive one. The typology constructed, inter alia, included, environmental, corporate, subsidiary, control and human resource characteristics. Kinuthia (2010) suggests that Foreign firms in Kenya since the 1970s have invested in a wide range of sectors. Most notably they played a major role in floriculture and horticulture, with close to 90 percent of flowers being controlled by foreign affiliates. In the Manufacturing sector FDI has concentrated on the consumer goods sector, such as food and beverage industries. This has changed in the recent years with the growth of the garment sector because of African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA). Of the 34 companies involved in AGOA 28 are foreign most of them concentrated in the Export Processing Zones (EPZs). FDI is also distributed to other sectors including services, telecommunication among others. 55 percent of the foreign firms are concentrated in Nairobi while Mombasa accounts for about 23 percent, thus Nairobi and Mombasa account for over 78 percent of FDI in Kenya. The main form of FDI establishment has been through the form of green fields establishments and Kenya has in total more than 200 multinational corporations. The main traditional sources of foreign investments are Britain, US and Germany, South Africa, Netherlands, Switzerland and of late China and India (UNCTAD, 2005). 2.1.2 Market Entry Strategies International market entry modes can be classified according to level of control, resource commitment, and risk involvement (Hill, Hwang and Kim, 1990). For example, in a study of the international operations of service firms in the United States, Erramilli and Rao (1993) classify market entry modes into two categories based on their level of control-full-control (i.e. wholly owned operation) and shared-control mode (i.e. contractual transfer or joint venture). The classification system adopted by Kim and Hwang (1992) is three fold: licensing, joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. Kim and Hwang believe that these methods provide three distinctive levels of control and require different levels of resource commitment. Kwon and Konopa (1993) indicate that each foreign market entry mode is associated with advantages and disadvantages in terms of risk, cost, control, and return. Their study was designed to examine the impacts of a series of determinants on the choice of foreign production and exporting adopted by 228 U.S. manufacturing firms. Agarwal and Ramaswami (1992) suggest that the most commonly used entry modes are exporting, licensing, joint venture and sole venture. These methods involve varying levels of resource commitment. When multinational enterprises (MNE) plan to expand overseas, they face several entry modes. Root (1994) defines an international market entry mode as an institutional arrangement that makes possible the entry of a companys products, technology, human skills, management, or other resources into a foreign country. Entry modes can be classified into three categories: Export entry mode, contractual entry mode and investment entry mode (Root, 1994). Expansion into foreign markets can be achieved via the following mechanisms: Exporting, Licensing,Ã¢â ¬Ã Franchising,Ã¢â ¬Ã Joint Venture, Direct Investment (Kim and Hwang,1992; Agarwal and Ramaswami,1992; Root, 1994; Erramilli and Rao,1993). These are explained below; 2.1.1. Exporting Exporting is the marketing and direct sale of domestically-produced goods in another country. Exporting is a traditional and well-established method of reaching foreign markets. There is no need for the company to invest in a foreign country because exporting does not require that the goods be produced in the target country. Most of the costs associated with exporting take the form of marketing expenses. Therefore, exporting is appropriate when there is a low trade barrier, home location has an advantage on costs and when customization is not crucial (Kim and Hwang, 1992). 2.1.2. Licensing A license arrangement is a business arrangement where a licensor using its monopoly position and right such as a Patent, a Trade Mark, a design or a copyright that has exclusive right which prevents others from exploiting the idea, design, name or logo commercially. The licensee pays a fee in exchange for the rights to use the intangible property and possibly for technical assistance (Erramilli and Rao, 1993). 2.1.3. Franchising Franchising is a similar entry mode to licensing. By the payment of a royalty fee, the franchisee will obtain the major business know-how via an agreement with the franchiser. The know-how also includes such intangible properties as patents, trademarks and so on. The difference from the licensing mode of entry is that the franchisee must obey certain rules given by franchiser. Franchising is most commonly used in service industries, such as McDonalds, etc. (Hill, Hwang and Kim, 1990). 2.1.4. Joint Venture Joint ventures represent an agreement between two parties to work together on a certain project, Operate in a particular market, etc. Some of the main common objectives in a joint venture:Ã¢â ¬Ã Market entry;Ã¢â ¬Ã Risk and reward sharing;Ã¢â ¬Ã Technology sharing and joint product development, etc. (Kwon and Konopa, 1993) 2.1.5. Foreign Direct Investment Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the direct ownership of facilities in the target country. It involves capital, technology, and personnel. FDI can be made through the acquisition of an existing entity or the establishment of a new enterprise. Direct ownership provides a high degree of control in the operations and the ability to better know the consumers and competitive environment, and the market in general. However, it requires a high level of resources and a high degree of commitment (Root, 1994). 2.1.6. Foreign Acquisition Acquisitions can be defined as a corporate action in which a company buys most, if not all, of the target companys ownership stakes in order to assume control of the target firm. Acquisitions are often made as part of a companys growth strategy whereby it is more beneficial to take over an existing firms operations and niche compared to expanding on its own. (Investopedia.com, 2011) 2.1.7. Green Field Entry Green field can be defined as a form of foreign direct investment where a parent company starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities from the ground up. In addition to building new facilities, most parent companies also create new long-term jobs in the foreign country by hiring new employees (Investopedia.com, 2011). The main advantages of setting up a new company:Ã¢â ¬Ã normally feasible, avoids risk of overpayment, Ã¢â ¬Ã avoids problem of integration, Still retains full control. The main disadvantages of setting up a new company:Ã¢â ¬Ã Slower startup, requires knowledge of foreign management, Ã¢â ¬Ã high risk and high commitment We can conclude that acquisition is appropriate when the market is developed for corporate control, the acquirer has high absorptive capacity, and when there is high synergy, whereas Green field entry is appropriate when there is lack of proper acquisition target, in-house local expertise, and embedded competitive advantage (Agarwal and Ramaswami, 1992). 2.1.3 Organization Performance Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives). According to Richard et al. (2009) organizational performance encompasses three specific areas of firm outcomes: (a) financial performance (profits, return on assets, return on investment, etc.); (b) product market performance (sales, market share, etc.); and (c) shareholder return (total shareholder return, economic value added, etc.). Most organizations view their performance in terms of effectiveness in achieving their mission, purpose or goals. Most NGOs, for example, would tend to link the larger notion of organizational performance to the results of their particular programs to improve the lives of a target group (e.g. the poor). At the same time, a majority of organizations also see their performance in terms of their efficiency in deploying resources. This relates to the optimal use of resources to obtain the results desired. Finally, in order for an organization to remain viable over time, it must be both financially viable and relevant to its stakeholders and their changing needs. A fundamental debate in strategic management and international marketing research is questioning about the performance, especially when the companies involve in international performance (Florin and Agboei, 2004). An accurate understanding of the crucial link between international strategy and performance is especially important in the face of world markets that are increasingly global. Consequently, international marketing research has moved from being descriptive studying the differences between exporters and non-exporters to providing performance explanations (shoham and kropp, 1998). In todays complex business world, performance is an indispensable guide for any company analyzing its level of success, in both the domestic and international arenas. Assessing export performance is quite a complex task, as export performance can be conceptualized and operationalized in many ways. Broadly speaking, the literature considers three aspects of export performance: financial, strategic, and that of performance satisfaction (Lages and Montgomery, 2004). Although considerable progress has since been made, research remains underdeveloped. Defining and understanding performance is problematic, especially in terms of identifying uniform, reliable, and valid performance measures (Katsikeas, Leonidou and Morgan, 2000). Export performance is the dependent variable in the simplified model and is defined as the outcome of a firms activities in export markets. There are two principal ways of measuring export performance: economic (financial measures such as sales, profits, and market share) and noneconomic (nonfinancial measures relating to product, market, experience elements, etc.). Most background and intervening variables were associated with economic measures of performance, particularly export sales intensity (export-to-total sales ratio), export sales growth, and export profitability (Katsikeas, Leonidou and Morgan, 2000). Also, Export performance, a widely studied construct, refers to the outcomes of a firms export activities, althoug h conceptual and operational definitions vary in the literature (Calantone, 2005) 2.2 Empirical Literature 2.2.1 International Market Entry Strategies by Multinationals International market entry modes can be classified according to level of control, resource commitment, and risk involvement (Anderson and Gatignon, 1986; Erramilli and Rao, 1993; Hill, Hwang and Kim, 1990). For example, in a study of the international operations of service firms in the United States, Erramilli and Rao (1993) classify market entry modes into two categories based on their level of control-full-control (i.e. wholly owned operation) and shared-control mode (i.e. contractual transfer or joint venture). The classification system adopted by Hill, Kim and Hwang (1992) is three fold: licensing, joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. Hill, Kim and Hwang (1992) believe that these methods provide three distinctive levels of control and require different levels of resource commitment. Kwon and Konopa (1993) indicate that each foreign market entry mode is associated with advantages and disadvantages in terms of risk, cost, control, and return. Their study was designed to examine the impacts of a series of determinants on the choice of foreign production and exporting adopted by 228 U.S. manufacturing firms. Agarwal and Ramaswami (1992) suggest that the most commonly used entry modes are exporting, licensing, joint venture and sole venture. These methods involve varying levels of resource commitment. Based on the location of products produced, Terpstra and Sarathy (2000) divide market entry methods into three major categories-indirect exporting, direct exporting and foreign manufacturing. Many forms of market entry strategy are available to firms to enter international markets. One classification first distinguishes between equity and non-equity modes. Equity modes involve firms taking some degree of ownership of the market organizations involved, including wholly owned subsidiaries and joint ventures. Non equity modes do not involve ownership and include exporting or some form contractual agreements such as licensing or franchising (Wilkinson and Nguyen, 2003). Caves (1982) identified four basic ways to expand internationally, from the lowest to the highest risk: exporting; licensing and franchising; strategic alliances; and wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. Cateora and Graham (2002) stated there are six basic strategies for entering a new market: export/import, licensing and franchising, joint venturing, consortia, partially-owned subsidiaries, and wholly-owned subsidiaries.
Monday, 19 August 2019
Frontal Lobe Syndrome Although volumetrically the frontal lobes are the largest portion of the brain their function remains somewhat elusive (Jacobs, 2005). Even neuropsychologists have a difficult time creating test that accurately test frontal lobe functioning. We do know however, that the frontal lobes are involved in the storage of memories, concentration, abstract thought, judgment, and self control. The frontal lobe lies directly behind our forehead (NINDS, 2005) It contains the primary motor cortex and the prefrontal cortex, which extend from the central sulcus to the anterior of the brain. The posterior part of the frontal lobe is the precentral gyrus which is specialized in the control of fine movements. The very most anterior portion of the frontal lobe is the prefrontal cortex. The neurons in this area have up to sixteen times as many dendritic spines as neurons in the occipital lobe or primary visual cortex. As a result, the prefrontal cortex is able to integrate a great deal of information (Kalat, 2004). For most people the left frontal lobe controls language and the right non-verbal abilities (UNL, 2005).On the left frontal lobe is an area called BrocaÃ¢â¬â¢s area which allows thoughts to be transformed into words. In addition, there are many connections from the frontal lobe to other parts of the brain that control vision, respiration, blood pressure and gastrointestinal activity (NBTF, 2005). Damage to the frontal lobe results a range of behaviors referred to collectively as Ã¢â¬Ëfrontal lobe syndrome.Ã¢â¬â¢ There are numerous ways of damaging the frontal cortex including lesions, tumors, and strokes. Lesions damage the frontal cortex when a blow to the head or a sudden change of motion causes the boney structure underneath the frontal lobes to tear the axons (as is the case with prefrontal lobotomy or leucotomy). A stroke can result in ventral and medial frontal lobe damage. Tumors can damage the frontal lobe by being located on one of the lobes, or by causing pressure on the frontal lobe, as is the case with meningioma, subdural hematoma or similarly meningitis (UNL, 2005). Frontal lobe syndrome results in the impairment of language, motor functions, social behavior, abstract reasoning, and cognition. Furthermore, there is often a change in personality (UNL, 2005). Although language remains fluent and in proper syntax, the overall amount of talking decreases. Patients have difficulty maintaining conversations and some even become mute. Motor functions are often uncoordinated and patients often have difficulty constructing three
After the war of 1812, the United States moved toward to the creation of a unified national state and by 1830 became a nation-state. Through major changes in infrastructure, establishments of national banks, and the purchases of land, America was developing into its own fully functional and self-sufficient nation. The victory of the War of 1812 was a huge leap toward America becoming its own nation because of the national unity the win provided its citizens. The morale of the citizens lifted greatly because they managed to defeat the greatest military powers of the world and managed to survive. It also proved to the world that the american nation could defend itself from foreign threats. The victory improved AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s self confidence and faith in the military to defend the natiosn freedom and honor. Clays American system was an economic plan consisting of the establishment of protective tariffs, to establish a national bank, and to improve the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure. Protective tariffs protected americans from cheap imports. America Needed a strong national bank to help regulate money and to get funding for internal improvement projects such as roads. Among the most important internal improvements created under the American System were the Erie Canal and the Cumberland Road. He wanted to unify the country by integrating the industrail with the agricultural and have a strengthened infrastructure and economic nationalism to allow for self sufficiency. The National Bank created a standarad form of currency and helped pay off the revolutionary war debt. In 1816, there was a second twenty year charter. It was founded during the administration of U.S. President James Madison to stabilize currency. The estblaishment of a national bank led improvements in transportation because now roads could be paid for. These Improvements in Transportations were good for communication around the nation, which helped send messages faster. In 1818, the national road started the growing road systems that tied the new west to the old east. The Erie Canal was built in New York and runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. The Loose construction of the elastic clause gave more power to the congress and allowed Thomas Jefferson to purchase the Louisana territory. The Louisiana Purchase was more than 530,000,000 acres of territory purchased from France in 1803.
Sunday, 18 August 2019
Business Intelligence Software As we discuss the possibility of emerging into business intelligence software we must keep in mind the overall purpose of using any type of software is to reach strategic goals in order to increase market shares. I will discuss how business intelligence software will allow us to meet those strategic goals. We will establish what type of information and analysis capabilities will be available once this business intelligence software is implemented. We will discuss hardware and system software that will be required to run specific business intelligence software. Lastly, I will give a brief synopsis on three vendors (IBM, Microsoft Microsoft and Oracle) that are dominating the business information software industry today. The goal to any company succeeding in today?s fast paced high tech world is to establish aggressive strategic goals and a means to meet those goals. The end state of strategic goals is the capturing of your industry market share. Business intelligence software is a means or method to meet the goals. Business Intelligence Software brings together established software into a single working suite that will allow personnel from across the corporation to observe the same information in real time on a day-to-day basis. By implementing business intelligence software into our company, it will allow for a consolidated data collection point. This software will also allow us to tap into this consolidated data using multiple methods and display it in various forms or in real time using different web applications. The information that can be extracted from the business information software is endless. In the article written by Alison Dragoon, Business Intelligence Get Smart(er), she states the following about data usage; ? ?[Unused data] is still a great source of untapped productivity and competitive advantage for most companies," he says. Just how much data is going unused? Downes guesses companies are extracting value from only about 20 percent of their data.? With this stated by placing all pertinent information into one database allows personnel throughout the company to pull data that will assist in their daily duties. This data can be arranged to track the life cycle of any product from birth to grave. By tracking an item in this fashion allows us to alleviate faulty products in this process or to allevia... ... analysis with Extract, Transform, and Load (ETL), online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining capabilities built into the data server. Additionally, we can add Oracles E-Business Suite Corporate Performance Management system that includes pre-packaged applications for measuring and monitoring business performance. Oracle brings to the table exactly what we are looking for, a proven business information tool that is capable of delivering the information that is required to give us time and accurate information. Bibliography Cindi Howson, The Best BI Tool [WWW document] URL http://www.intelligententerprise.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=21400422 Alice Dragoon, Business Intelligence Gets Smart(er) [WWW document] URL http://www.cio.com/archive/091503/smart.html Unknown, Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing in SQL Server 2005 [WWW document] URL http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/sql/2005/evaluate/dwsqlsy.mspx Unknown, Introducing SQL Server 2005 [WWW document] URL http://www.microsoft.com/sql/2005/default.asp Unknown, IBM, [WWW document] URL http://www.ibm.com/us/ Unknown, Oracle, [WWW document] URL http://www.oracle.com/index.html
Saturday, 17 August 2019
In 1911 ten politically important men of Serbia formed a secret society called the Black Hand in one of their sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s basements. Three years later, the Black Hand had started World War one. Fifteen million people died, 20 million people wounded; all because of the bad judgement of one man and the death of another. The cause the Black Hand was fighting for was a worthy one for they were simply liberating themselves from Austro-Hungarian control. They wanted to be free people and many powerful and political people of Serbia joined the leader ranks of the Black Hand. They operated through stealth and if a perpetrator of the Black Hand was caught by the enemy then they were under strict orders to commit suicide at the first opportunity, if not then the Black Hand would kill that person themselves in case they had become a spy for the enemy; One bad move and the foundation of which they formed would be ripped apart; They had to be cautious and very clear on what they intended to d o or their enemy would pick them off one by one. The cause of the First World War is quite memorably famous; well IÃ¢â¬â¢d say it is to anyone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s studied WWI in school but what may seem interesting is how one small rock that is the assassination of a prince, tied to many other bigger rocks that are the empires and the countries, could miraculously pull them all in to a never-ending hole in such short time. Many speculate that the tension between the two sides of the war was at such a high standing point that even a feather could make that tension blow up colossally; others who think otherwise are quite stupid. So generally it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the small innocent(well I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly say innocent) rock that pulled the larger rocks into deep oblivion, no, it was the powerful winds abided and helped by the small rock that made it all happen, a small rock made such a big difference in a much larger world, anythingÃ¢â¬â¢s possible eh? The Black Hand was a secret organisation whose sole goal was to disrupt Austria-Hun gary plans, terrorise them in their most crucial points and in the end game; kick them out of Serbia so the country could once again be whole and free. They would go to any measures to extrapolate their plans and many people died. They formed in 1911 and by 1914 there were several hundreds of members, perhaps even more accurately two thousand five hundred. They had spies everywhere. Perhaps their biggest act and possibly their biggest overestimated one was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. They could never possibly see that it would some short time later cause World War one. They had hoped to shake Austria-Hungary and perhaps cite some fear into the King but never to cause a war of mass scale. Unfortunately any one thing, however small, was enough to pop that tension filled balloon and cause a war. So If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cause the war, something else was obviously have done it. The assassination wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t professionally done. By that I mean the leaders behind the plot didnÃ¢â¬â¢t go to great measures to ensure that Franz Ferdinand would die. They relied on the number of men they had enrolled to do the job. There were a lot of their men on the scene and many were not captured, being transparent in the luminous crowd. Perhaps they did not want to hurt their fellow Serbs for something such as a 20 metre range bomb would surely kill and harm a lot of innocent people. But never the less the prince was assassinated after fruitless attempts; He was assassinated by a young man called Gavrillo Princip who made no hesitation to kill the prince after spotting him across the road, his colleagues were obviously unsuccessful in the act and without a seconds thought Gavrillo ran out and fired two shots, killing the prince and his wife Sophie. Years after the war had ended Gavrillo Princip was questioned. At the end of the interview, they asked him if he knew what would have happened when he fired those shots, would he have done it? This proved that the Black Hands intentions were clean at heart even to the lowest members for he said Ã¢â¬Å"god hell no, Commend millions of people to death because of my own stupid judgement? Hell noÃ¢â¬ .